Research Papers


Negotiation & Conflict


Conflict is inevitable, and it is how conflict is managed that helps or hinders human groups. Our research explores the conditions under which conflict can originate and spread in cultural systems and how norms for conflict management develop. We also explore the way that individuals and groups negotiate about conflict issues, and the different processes through which successful negotiation agreements occur within and across cultures. Our work examines culture universality and specificity in the etiology of revenge and forgiveness, as well as the cultural psychology of terrorism. We also focus on empowerment in negotiation, and explore how stigmatized individuals can overcome limitations to their negotiation authority.

See papers in this area below. 


Caluori, N., Jackson, J. C., Gray, K., & Gelfand, M. (2020). Conflict Changes How People View God. Psychological Science, 31(3), 280–292.

Han, X., Gelfand, M. J., Wu, B., Zhang, T., Li, W., Gao, T., Pang, C., Wu, T., Zhou, Y., Zhou, S., Wu, X., & Han, S. (2020). A neurobiological association of revenge propensity during intergroup conflict. ELife, 9, e52014. 

Lemay Jr, E. P., Ryan, J. E., Fehr, R., & Gelfand, M. J. (2019). Validation of negativity: Drawbacks of interpersonal responsiveness during conflicts with outsiders. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Jackson, J. C., Gelfand, M. J., Ayub, N., & Wheeler, J. (2019). Together from Afar: Introducing a Diary Contact Technique for Improving Intergroup Relations. Behavioral Science & Policy, 5(1), 14–33.

Jackson, J. C., Choi, V. K., & Gelfand, M. J. (2019). Revenge: A multilevel review and synthesis. Annual Review of Psychology, 70, 319-345.

Gelfand, M. J. & Jackson, J. C. (2019) The Cultural Psychology of Negotiation. In D. Cohen & S. Kitayama (Eds.), Handbook of Cultural Psychology, 2, 650-677. New York, NY: Guilford.

Choi, V. K., Gelfand M. J., & Jackson J. C. (2018). The role of entitativity in perpetuating cycles of violence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 41.

Moaddel, M., & Gelfand, M. J. (Eds.). (2017). Values, Political Action, and Change in the Middle East and the Arab Spring. Oxford University Press.

Shteynberg, G., Gelfand, M., Imai, L., Mayer, D. M., & Bell, C. (2017). Prosocial thinkers and the social transmission of justice. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47(4), 429-442.

Salmon, E. D., Gelfand, M. J., Ting, H., Kraus, S., Gal, Y. A., & Fulmer, C. A. (2016). When time is not money: Why Americans may lose out at the negotiation table. Academy of Management Discoveries, 2(4), 349-367. Watch video here.

Lyons-Padilla, S., Gelfand, M. J., Mirahmadi, H., Farooq, M., & Van Egmond, M. (2015). Belonging nowhere: Marginalization & radicalization risk among Muslim immigrants. Behavioral Science & Policy, 1(2), 1-12.

Fulmer, C. A., & Gelfand, M. J. (2015). Trust after violations: Are collectivists more or less forgiving?. Journal of Trust Research, 5(2), 109-131.

Nowak, A., Gelfand, M. J., Borkowski, W., Cohen, D., & Hernandez, I. (2016). The evolutionary basis of honor cultures. Psychological Science, 27(1), 12-24.

Gelfand, M. J., Severance, L., Lee, T., Bruss, C. B., Lun, J., Abdel Latif, A. H., ... & Moustafa Ahmed, S. (2015). Culture and getting to yes: The linguistic signature of creative agreements in the United States and Egypt. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(7), 967-989.

Zheng, X., Fehr, R., Tai, K., Narayanan, J., & Gelfand, M. J. (2015). The unburdening effects of forgiveness: Effects on slant perception and jumping height. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6(4), 431-438.

Lee, T. L., Gelfand, M. J., & Kashima, Y. (2014). The serial reproduction of conflict: Third parties escalate conflict through communication biases. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 54, 68-72.

Gelfand, M. J., Harrington, J. R., & Leslie, L. M. (2014). Conflict cultures: A new frontier for conflict management research and practice. Handbook of conflict management research, 109-134.

Roos, P., Gelfand, M., Nau, D., & Carr, R. (2014). High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1776), 20132661.

Kruglanski, A. W., Gelfand, M. J., Bélanger, J. J., Sheveland, A., Hetiarachchi, M., & Gunaratna, R. (2014). The psychology of radicalization and deradicalization: How significance quest impacts violent extremism. Political Psychology, 35, 69-93.

Rosenfeld, A., Kraus, S., Gelfand, M., An, B., & Lin, J. (2014). A New Paradigm for the Study of Corruption in Different Cultures. In Springer, C. (Ed.) International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling, and Prediction (pp. 261-268).

Gelfand, M. J., LaFree, G., Fahey, S., & Feinberg, E. (2013). Culture and extremism. Journal of Social Issues, 69(3), 495-517.

Kruglanski, A. W., Bélanger, J. J., Gelfand, M., Gunaratna, R., Hettiarachchi, M., Reinares, F., ... & Sharvit, K. (2013). Terrorism—A (self) love story: Redirecting the significance quest can end violence. American Psychologist, 68(7), 559.

Inman, M., Kishi, R., Wilkenfeld, J., Gelfand, M., & Salmon, E. (2014). Cultural influences on mediation in international crises. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58(4), 685-712.

Lee, T. L., Gelfand, M. J., Shteynberg, G. A. R. R. I. Y., Yuki, M., & Brewer, M. (2013). Culture and the contagion of conflict. Culture and Intergroup Relations, 241-60.

Bui-Wrzosinska , L., Gelfand, M.J., Nowak, A., & Severance, L. (2013). Studying trajectories of conflict escalation. In K. Sycara, M. J. Gelfand, & A. Abbe (Eds.) Models for intercultural collaboration and negotiation. New York: Springer. Buy here.

Severance, L., Bui‐Wrzosinska, L., Gelfand, M. J., Lyons, S., Nowak, A., Borkowski, W., ... & Lin, C. C. (2013). The psychological structure of aggression across cultures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(6), 835-865.

Salmon, E. D., Gelfand, M. J., Çelik, A. B., Kraus, S., Wilkenfeld, J., & Inman, M. (2013). Cultural contingencies of mediation: Effectiveness of mediator styles in intercultural disputes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(6), 887-909.

Fulmer, C. A., & Gelfand, M. J. (2013). How do I trust thee? Dynamic trust profiles and their individual and social contextual determinants. In K. Sycara, M. J. Gelfand, & A. Abbe (Eds.) Models for intercultural collaboration and negotiation. New York: Springer.

Gelfand, M. J., Brett, J., Gunia, B. C., Imai, L., Huang, T. J., & Hsu, B. F. (2013). Toward a culture-by-context perspective on negotiation: Negotiating teams in the United States and Taiwan. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(3), 504.

Gelfand, M. J., Frese, M., & Salmon, E. (2012). Cultural Influences on Errors: Planning, detection, and management. In M. Frese & D. Hoffman (Eds.) Errors in Organizations. London: Psychology Press/Taylor and Francis Group. Buy here.

Gelfand, M. J., Leslie, L. M., Keller, K., & de Dreu, C. (2012). Conflict cultures in organizations: How leaders shape conflict cultures and their organizational-level consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(6), 1131.

Gelfand, M. J., & Gal, K. Negotiating in a brave new world: Challenges and opportunities for the field of negotiation science. (2012). In B. Goldman & D. Shapiro (Eds.) The Psychology of Negotiations in the 21st Century Workplace. New York, NY: Psychology Press/Routledge. Buy here.

Fehr, R., & Gelfand, M. J. (2012). The forgiving organization: A multilevel model of forgiveness at work. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 664-688.

Fulmer, C.A., & Gelfand, M. J. (2012). In whom (and at what level) we trust: Trust across multiple organizational levels. Journal of Management. 38(4), 1167-1230.

Gelfand, M., Shteynberg, G., Lee, T., Lun, J., Lyons, S., Bell, C., ... & Abdel-Latif, A. H. (2012). The cultural contagion of conflict. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1589), 692-703.

Liu, L. A., Friedman, R., Barry, B., Gelfand, M. J., & Zhang, Z. X. (2012). The dynamics of consensus building in intracultural and intercultural negotiations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 57(2), 269-304.

Gelfand, M. J., Severance, L., Fulmer, C. A., & Dabbagh, M. A. Explaining and predicting cultural differences in negotiation. (2012). In G. Bolton & R. Croson (Eds.) Handbook of Negotiation: Experimental Economic Perspectives. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Buy here.

Lun, J., Lyons, S., Gelfand, M. J., & Shteynberg, G. (2011). Descriptive Norms as Carriers of Culture in Negotiation. International Negotiation, 16(3), 361-381.

Gal, Y. A., Kraus, S., Gelfand, M., Khashan, H., & Salmon, E. (2011). An adaptive agent for negotiating with people in different cultures. ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology, 3(1), 8.

Leslie, L. M. & Gelfand, M. J. (2011). The cultural psychology of social influence: Implications for organizational politics. To appear in G. R. Ferris & D. C. Treadway (Eds.), Politics in organizations: Theory and Research Considerations. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Publishing

Gelfand, M. J., Fulmer, C. A., & Severance, L. (2011). The psychology of negotiation and mediation. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA Handbooks in Psychology. APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Maintaining, Expanding, and Contracting the Organization. 3, 495-554.

Ramesh, A., & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). Will they stay or will they go? The role of job embeddedness in predicting turnover in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 807.

Imai, L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). The culturally intelligent negotiator: The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 112(2), 83-98.

Fehr, R., Gelfand, M.J., & Nag, M. (2010). The road to forgiveness: A meta-analytic synthesis of its situational and dispositional correlates. Psychological Bulletin. 136(5), 894.

Fehr, R., & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). When apologies work: How matching apology components to victims’ self-construals facilitates forgiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 113(1), 37-50.

Gelfand, M. J., Leslie, L., & Keller, K. (2008). On the etiology of conflict cultures in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 137-166.

Yamaguchi, S., Gelfand, M., Ohashi, M. M., & Zemba, Y. (2005). The cultural psychology of control: Illusions of personal versus collective control in the United States and Japan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(6), 750-761.

Gelfand, M., Duan, L., & Pinkley, R. (2005). When, where and how: the use of multidimensional scaling methods in the study of negotiation and social conflict. International Negotiation, 10(1), 79-96.

Kashima, Y., Kashima, E. S., Gelfand, M., Goto, S., Takata, T., Takemura, K., & Zhang, Z. (2003). War and peace in East Asia: Sino-Japanese relations and national stereotypes. Peace and Conflict, 9(3), 259-276

Gelfand, M. J., Higgins, M., Nishii, L. H., Raver, J. L., Dominguez, A., Murakami, F., ... & Toyama, M. (2002). Culture and egocentric perceptions of fairness in conflict and negotiation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 833.

Gelfand, M. J. & McCusker, C. (2002). Metaphor and the cultural construction of negotiation: A paradigm for theory and research. In M. Gannon & K. L. Newman (Eds.) Handbook of Cross-Cultural Management 292-314. New York, NY: Blackwell.

Triandis, H. C., Carnevale, P., Gelfand, M., Robert, C., Wasti, S. A., Probst, T., ... & Kim, U. (2001). Culture and deception in business negotiations: A multilevel analysis. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 1(1), 73-90.

Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L. H., Holcombe, K. M., Dyer, N., Ohbuchi, K. I., & Fukuno, M. (2001). Cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict: Interpretations of conflict episodes in the United States and Japan. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1059-1074.

Brockner, J., Ackerman, G., Greenberg, J., Gelfand, M. J., Francesco, A. M., Chen, Z. X., ... & Shapiro, D. (2001). Culture and procedural justice: The influence of power distance on reactions to voice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37(4), 300-315.

Gelfand, M. J., Spurlock, D., Sniezek, J. A., & Shao, L. (2000). Culture and social prediction: The role of information in enhancing confidence in social predictions in the United States and China. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(4), 498-516.

Gelfand, M., & Dyer, N. (2000). A cultural perspective on negotiation: Progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Applied Psychology, 49(1), 62-99.

Gelfand, M. J., & Realo, A. (1999). Individualism-collectivism and accountability in intergroup negotiations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(5), 721.

Gelfand, M. J., & Christakopoulou, S. (1999). Culture and negotiator cognition: Judgment accuracy and negotiation processes in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79(3), 248-269.