Research Papers


Diversity & Justice


Systematic discrimination and injustice inside and outside of the workplace can perpetuate unhealthy organizational climates.


We explore the roots of sexual harassment, racial discrimination, and other issues concerning organizational justice, in an effort to inspire organizational equality and minimize prejudice.

See papers in this area below. 

Salas, E., Salazar, M., & Gelfand, M. J. (2013). Understanding diversity as culture. In Q. Roberson (Ed.), Diversity in organizations. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Gelfand, M. J., Frese, M., & Salmon, E. (2011). Cultural influences on errors: Prevention, detection, and management. In M. Frese & D. Hoffman (Eds.) Errors in Organizations, 273315. London: Psychology Press/Taylor and Francis Group. 

Bowles, H. R., & Gelfand, M. (2010). Status and the evaluation of workplace deviance. Psychological Science, 21(1), 49-54.

Kray, L. J., & Gelfand, M. J. (2009). Relief versus regret: The effect of gender and negotiating norm ambiguity on reactions to having one's first offer accepted. Social Cognition, 27(3), 418-436.

Leslie, L. M., & Gelfand, M. J. (2008). The who and when of internal gender discrimination claims: An interactional model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 107(2), 123-140.

Small, D. A., Gelfand, M., Babcock, L., & Gettman, H. (2007). Who goes to the bargaining table? The influence of gender and framing on the initiation of negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(4), 600.

Gettman, H. J., & Gelfand, M. J. (2007). When the customer shouldn't be king: Antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 757.

Raver, J. L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2005). Beyond the individual victim: Linking sexual harassment, team processes, and team performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), 387-400.

Kim, S. S., & Gelfand, M. J. (2003). The influence of ethnic identity on perceptions of organizational recruitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 396-416.

Babcock, L., Laschever, S., Gelfand, M., & Small, D. (2003). Nice girls don’t ask. Harvard Business Review, 81(10), 14-16.

Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J. L., & Holcombe Ehrhart, K. (2002). Methodological issues in cross-cultural organizational research. In S. G. Rogelberg (Ed.), Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology, (pp. 216-246). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Fitzgerald, L. F., Drasgow, F., Hulin, C. L., Gelfand, M. J., & Magley, V. J. (1997). Antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment in organizations: A test of an integrated model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(4), 578.

Gelfand, M. J., Fitzgerald, L. F., & Drasgow, F. (1995). The structure of sexual harassment: A confirmatory analysis across cultures and settings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47(2), 164-177.

Fitzgerald, L. F., Gelfand, M. J., & Drasgow, F. (1995). Measuring sexual harassment: Theoretical and psychometric advances. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17(4), 425-445.